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It is relatively cheap compared to other food options in the airport but not exactly cheap compared to elsewhere in Singapore. There are also staff canteens in Terminals 1 and 3.

Terminals T1, T2 and T3 all have airside ie accessible without passing through immigration transit hotels. Project Jewel was announced in August - a new terminal structure intended as a mix-use complex situated on a 3.

Essentially a new multi-storey underground car park will replace the existing facilities, while an indoor garden, with a waterfall, is built above.

Once completed in , the new building will sit between the three existing terminal buildings, enabling passengers to transfer via the new complex, whilst being an attraction and shopping destination in itself.

The design will consist of a circular structure, reminiscent of a doughnut, with a large garden located at the centre and water falling from the edge of the circular atrium opening.

As part of the project, Terminal 1 will be expanded to allow more space for the arrival hall, baggage claim areas and taxi bays.

While later airports like Kallang and Paya Lebar have been closed and turned into a military airbase respectively, Seletar is still in use to this day.

The Causeway is a very popular and thus terminally congested entry point connecting Woodlands in the north of Singapore directly into the heart of Johor Bahru.

The Causeway can be crossed by bus, train, taxi or car, but it is no longer feasible to cross on foot after Malaysia shifted their customs and immigration complex 2km inland.

A second crossing between Malaysia and Singapore, known as the Second Link , has been built between Tuas in western Singapore and Tanjung Kupang in the western part of Johor state.

Much faster and less congested than the Causeway, it is used by some of the luxury bus services to Kuala Lumpur and is strongly recommended if you have your own car.

There is only one infrequent bus across the Second Link, and only Malaysian "limousine" taxis are allowed to cross it and charge RM and up for the privilege.

Walking across is also not allowed, not that there would be any practical means to continue the journey from either end if you did.

Peninsular Malaysia-registered cars need to show that they have valid road tax and Malaysian insurance coverage. Other foreign cars need a Vehicle Registration Certificate, customs document Carnet de Passages en Douane , vehicle insurance purchased from a Singapore-based insurance company and an International Circulation Permit.

Go through immigration first and get your passport stamped. Once that is done, proceed to customs where you will have to open the boot for inspection.

After that, you are free to go anywhere in Singapore. This is done by slotting the AutoPass into the reader at the immigration counter while you get your passport stamped.

Driving into Malaysia from Singapore is relatively uncomplicated, although small tolls are charged for both crossing and for the Second Link the adjoining expressway.

Do be sure to change some ringgit before crossing, as Singapore dollars are accepted only at the unfavourable rate of 1: Moreover, be prepared for longer queues as Malaysia introduced a biometric system for foreigners wishing to enter that country see Malaysia article.

In both directions, car hire agencies often prohibit their vehicles from crossing the border or charge extra. Unfortunately, there is no central bus terminal and different companies leave from all over the city.

Most other operators have banded together in two shared booking portals. Many, but by no means all, use the Golden Mile Complex shopping mall near Bugis as their Singapore terminal.

In general, the more you pay, the faster and more comfortable your trip. Book early for popular departure times like Friday and Sunday evening, Chinese New Year, etc, and factor in some extra time for congestion at the border.

An alternative to taking a direct "international bus" is to make the short hop to Johor Bahru to catch domestic Malaysian long-distance express buses to various Malaysian destinations from the Larkin Bus Terminal.

Besides having more options, fares may also be lower because you will be paying in Malaysian ringgit rather than Singaporean dollars.

The downside is the time-consuming hassle of first getting to Johor Bahru and then getting to Larkin terminal on the outskirts of town.

Terminals aside, all buses make two stops at Singapore immigration and at Malaysian immigration. At both immigration points, you must disembark with all your luggage and pass through passport control and customs, then board the next bus by showing your ticket.

Figure on one hour for the whole rigmarole from end to end, more during rush hour. While less frequent and more expensive than buses, and the Woodlands KTMB station is a bus ride away from the MRT system, the trains have dedicated immigration and custom checks areas separated from the very busy road checkpoints, and get you across the Causeway without getting stuck in traffic.

Gates open 30 minutes before each departure for immigration clearance and boarding, and close 10 minutes before departure. For departures from Woodlands Train Checkpoint, avoid arriving very early as there are very limited facilities, and toilets are only available after immigration.

Photography and video recording are prohibited at the train checkpoint. Tickets can be bought up to 30 days in advance, either in person at KTMB ticket counters or online through the KTMB e-ticketing website , and sold up to 15 minutes before departure if still available.

Booking in advance is recommended, as the service is popular among commuters and weekend shoppers, in particular weekday mornings departures from JB Sentral usually snatched up as soon as tickets are released for booking 30 days in advance and weekend evenings departures from JB Sentral usually sold out on the morning of departure.

For JB Sentral-Woodlands, at JB Sentral there are turnstiles installed at the departure gate Gate A ; scan the barcode or QR code on your ticket can be one stored on a mobile device to activate the turnstile.

Going to Malaysia, both Singapore and Malaysia immigration checks are conveniently done at Woodlands before boarding.

Firstly Singapore stamps you out, then walk over to the adjacent hall to get stamp in by Malaysia. In the reverse direction, Malaysian exit immigration checks are carried out at JB Sentral before boarding, and Singapore immigration checks are done upon arrival at Woodlands.

Despite being located in the same immigration checkpoint complex and having similar names, Woodlands Train Checkpoint is a separate facility from the much larger and busier Woodlands Checkpoint for road vehicles.

If you mistakenly end up in Woodlands Checkpoint and see immigration counters in front of you, you are better off proceeding with immigration clearance and taking a bus across the border, giving the train a miss.

Backtracking is not normally allowed without a strong reason, you will be interviewed by immigration officers before being escorted out of the checkpoint, wasting time and you will still miss the train anyway.

There is also the option of taking a taxi between Singapore and Johor Bahru. The main advantage is that you do not need to lug your stuff or yourself through Immigration and Customs at both ends; you can just sit in the car.

Both Singapore-registered and Malaysian-registered taxis are available. Singapore-registered taxis can bring you to anywhere in Singapore but can only go to Larkin in Johor Bahru, while Malaysian-registered taxis can bring you to anywhere in Malaysia but can only go to Ban San St in Singapore.

Drop-off points other than the taxi terminal in the destination country may incur additional charges; check with the driver before boarding.

Singapore has five ferry terminals which handle international ferries: Operators at Harbourfront include:. For Tanjung Pinang , there are total of 6 ferries a day, increasing to 9 during weekends.

Tanjung Balai is served by Penguin and IndoFalcon from Harbourfront, with six ferries total on weekdays, increasing to 8 during weekends.

Ferries shuttle from Singapore to southeastern Johor and are handy for access to the beach resort of Desaru. The scheduled ferry service to Tioman was discontinued in Singapore is also a popular stop for round-the-world and major regional cruises including those originating from as far as Japan , China , Australia , Europe and North America.

Check with cruise companies and sellers for details. Getting around Singapore is easy: Very few visitors rent cars.

CityMapper Singapore and Google Maps does a pretty good job of figuring out the fastest route by MRT and bus and even estimating taxi fares between any two points.

If you are staying in Singapore for some time or are planning to return to Singapore several times in the future, the EZ-link contactless RFID farecard or a Nets Flash Pay card might be a worthwhile purchase.

You can use the same card for 5 years. The card technology was changed in , but if you have any old cards lying around, they can be exchanged for free with value intact at TransitLink offices in all MRT stations.

Alternatively, the Singapore Tourist Pass available at selected major MRT stations including Changi Airport and Orchard also includes ez-link card functionality and a variety of discounts for attractions.

The passes are valid until the end of operating hours on the day they expire. Single tickets can be purchased for both MRT and buses. In the case of buses it delays everyone else because the driver has to count fare stages to tell you how much you need to pay.

In addition, no change is given for the bus and you will need to buy a separate ticket if you intend to transfer to another bus later in your journey.

Distance based fares have been available since July All commuters will be charged a fare according to the total distance travelled, on the bus, LRT and MRT, and make transfers without incurring additional cost.

They are a cheap and very reliable mode of transportation, and the network covers most points of interest for the visitor. All lines are seamlessly integrated, even if the lines are operated by different transport companies, so you do not need to buy a new ticket to transfer.

All train lines use contactless RFID tickets. Just tap to scan your train ticket at the gantry when entering and exiting the train service area.

To load a new ticket onto an existing card at a ticket machine, just place it on the designated spot and follow the on-screen instructions.

Distance based fares Please remember these points to enjoy the full benefits of distance based fares: The MRT stations are clean and usually equipped with free toilets.

Underground stations have platform screen doors between the train and the platform while most above-ground stations have Half-height Platform Screen Doors HHPSDs so there is no risk of falling onto the tracks.

There are exceptions though, when a staff member comes in to drive the train. In this case, a tape will be put up behind the driving area to prevent passengers from interfering with the driver.

As of October , a Downtown Line extension connects the Chinatown Station with the Expo Station on the Changi Airport Extension, providing travellers with an alternative route to get between Changi Airport and the city.

Buses connect various corners of Singapore, but are slower and harder to use than the MRT. The advantage though of this is you get to see the sights rather than a dark underground tunnel at a low price.

Payment with ez-link or Nets Flashpay card is thus the easiest method: When you alight, tap your card again at the exit, and the difference is refunded.

Inspectors occasionally prowl buses to check that everybody has paid or tapped, so those who are on tourist day passes should tap before sitting down.

Another advantage of ez-link or Nets Flashpay cards is that you will be able to enjoy distance-based fares and avoid the boarding fee.

After midnight on Fridays, Saturdays and before public holidays only , the NightRider services are a fairly convenient way of getting around, with seven lines running every 20min.

As mentioned earlier, gothere. Taxis use meters and are reasonably priced and honest, however, a shortage of taxis in Singapore means that they are often unavailable for hours at a time.

Be aware, however, that taxis are often remarkably difficult to secure, especially during peak commute or shopping hours, or when there is inclement weather.

The advent of ride-sharing apps see below has mitigated this somewhat, though do expect surcharges during periods of high demand.

Watch out for surprises though: All such charges are shown on the bottom right-hard corner of the meter, recorded in the printed receipt and explained in tedious detail in a sticker on the window; if you suspect the cab driver is trying to pull a fast one, call the company and ask for an explanation.

Note that there is no surcharge for trips to the airport. While all taxis are equipped to handle and are required to accept credit cards, in practice many cabbies do not accept electronic payment.

Always ask before getting in. Some taxi companies offer booking via SMS, online and mobile app. Despite the costs involved, taxis may sometimes take you to distant locations outside the CBD faster than mass transport.

An airport trip from the city centre may take less than 20min on a taxi but more than 30min on an MRT. In the Central Business District, taxis may pick up passengers only at taxi stands found outside any shopping mall or buildings with their own driveways including virtually all hotels.

At night spots featuring long queues, such as Clarke Quay, you may on occasion be approached by touts offering a quick flat fare to your destination.

This is illegal and very expensive but reasonably safe for you. Drivers, on the other hand, will probably lose their job if caught.

Some Singapore taxi drivers have very poor geographical knowledge and may expect you to know where they should go, so it may be helpful to bring a map of your destination area or directions on finding where you wish to go.

It may also be helpful to write down the address of your destination. Some cabbies may also ask you which route you want to take; most are satisfied with "whichever way is faster".

Beginning April , the major rideshare competitors Uber and Grab have consolidated into a single Grab app with complete coverage and presence in Singapore; Uber will cease to operate in the country.

Before arriving, download the Grab ride-hailing app. Rides are reasonably priced and the app also allows users to hail conventional taxis.

Other options include Ryde and Go Jek which offers competitive prices as well. Trishaws , three-wheeled bicycle taxis, haunt the area around the Singapore River and Chinatown.

Geared purely for tourists, they should be avoided for serious travel as locals do not use them. There is little room for bargaining: Car rental is not a popular option in Singapore.

It is also hardly necessary for tourists since public transport sufficiently covers all areas of the island with a significant population base.

If planning on touring Malaysia by car, it makes much more sense to head across the border to Johor Bahru , where both rentals and petrol are half price, and you have the option of dropping your car off elsewhere in the country.

This also avoids the unwelcome extra attention that Singapore-registered plates tend to get from thieves in Malaysia.

One rental company called smove offers electric vehicle rentals. Since the cars are battery powered, you save on the cost of gas.

They offer their service in the Buona Vista area of Singapore. Roads in Singapore are in excellent condition and driving habits are generally good with most people following the traffic rules due to stringent enforcement, though road courtesy tends to be sorely lacking.

Compared to other major cities around the world like Sydney , Tokyo or Hong Kong , parking spaces are comparatively easier to find in the city centre of Singapore, although peak hour congestion can be quite severe.

Foreign licences in English are valid in Singapore for up to a year from your date of entry, after which you will have to convert your foreign license to a Singapore one.

Foreign licences not in English must be accompanied by an International Driving Permit IDP or an official English translation usually available from your embassy for them to be valid.

Singaporeans drive on the left UK style and the driving age is ERP gantries are activated at different times, usually in the expected direction of most cars.

As a rule of thumb, gantries found in roads leading to the CBD are activated during the morning rush hour while gantries found in roads exiting the CBD are activated during the evening rush hour.

Passing through an active ERP gantry with insufficient value will mean that an alert is sent to your registered address. You will need to pay an administrative fee in addition to the difference between the remaining amount and the actual charge.

You have a limited time to settle this otherwise your penalty becomes heavier. All passengers must wear seatbelts and using a phone while driving is banned.

Drink-driving is not tolerated: Even if your blood alcohol level does not exceed the legal limit, you can still be charged with drink driving if the police are convinced that your ability to control the vehicle has been compromised by the presence of alcohol i.

The police do conduct periodic roadblocks and speed cameras are omnipresent. Fines will be sent by mail to you or your rental agency, who will then pass on the cost with a surcharge.

Bicycles are more commonly used in Singapore as a form of recreation rather than as a substitute for public transportation. While the city is small and its landscape is flat, it can be difficult to predict how ridable a route will be without scoping it out first.

Weather can also be a problem, as the tropical humidity and heat make it unpleasant to engage in physical activity outdoors.

The air quality also plummets when the thick smoke from Indonesian fires descends on Singapore. This period usually arrives during the mid-year when Indonesia farmers perform the "slash and burn" method of removing waste crops.

However, bicycling is gradually becoming a more common mode of transportation, especially with the advent of station-free bike-sharing services like ofo and Mobike Singapore.

These bikes can be easily found at major pedestrian-transit areas like bus stops and outside shopping malls, and can be rented using a simple smartphone app for a very low price.

Small folding bicycles may be taken on the MRT during certain times of the day, but large bicycles are a no-no. Bicycles may cross the Causeway to Malaysia on motorbike lanes , but are not allowed on expressways.

In the main business district and on main roadways, pavements and pedestrian crossings are in good shape and plentiful. This is, however, rarely if ever enforced.

An unavoidable downside, though, is the tropical heat and humidity , which leaves many visitors sweaty and exhausted, so bring along a handkerchief and a bottle of water.

Alternatively, after sundown, evenings can also be comparatively cool. A useful tip to combat the tropical weather is to look out for air-conditioned underground pedestrian crossings.

These climate-controlled walkways are plentiful and often located between shopping malls and high-rise office buildings.

In addition, look out for the pedestrian walkways connecting to underground MRT stations. Classic walks in Singapore include walking down the river from the Merlion through the Quays, trekking along the Southern Ridges Walk or just strolling around Chinatown , Little India or Bugis.

Kick scooters are a good alternative to walking, taking less than a quarter of the time depending on the distance you are going.

Kick scooters are a convenient way of getting around, especially when combined with public transport. As opposed to bicycles, kick scooters are allowed on pedestrian walkways, as long as you are mindful of other pedestrians around you.

You can also rent motorcycles to ride around the city and even to Malaysia. Find those rentals with comprehensive insurance in Singapore and Malaysia.

Helmets are compulsory when riding motorcycles in Singapore. In , Singapore became the first country in the world to trial on-demand driverless taxis , allowing passengers to book a ride in a self-driving vehicle through the Grab ride-hailing app by selecting the "robo-car" fleet icon during booking.

This partnership between nuTonomy and Grab has proven to be successful and popular with riders. However, tourists may find it challenging to access these driverless taxis as the current trial is limited to the one-north business district in Singapore.

Tourists can ride the driverless vehicle between Bayfront Plaza and the Flower Dome to see more of the Gardens. On-board commentary is also provided so passengers can learn more about self-driving vehicle technology and the garden surroundings.

Visitors need to collect a timeslot coupon from the AutoRider counter at Bayfront Plaza before purchasing tickets. Who are the people in your neighbourhood?

The Big 3 — Chinese, Malays and Indians — get all the press, but there are plenty of other communities with their own little neighbourhoods or shopping malls in Singapore: Lucky Plaza, on Orchard Rd French: Tanjong Pagar Rd Peranakan Chinese: Malay may be enshrined in the Constitution as the national language, but in practice the most common language is English, spoken by almost every Singaporean under the age of 50 with varying degrees of fluency.

English is spoken much better here than in most Asian neighbours. English is also the medium of instruction in schools, except for mother tongue subjects e.

Malay, Mandarin and Tamil , which are also required to be learned in school by Singaporeans. In addition, all official signs and documents are written in English, usually using British spelling.

Mandarin is spoken by many older and middle aged Singaporean Chinese while many young Singaporean Chinese speak mostly English and sometimes Mandarin Chinese though fluency and proficiency of Mandarin Chinese varies among younger Singaporean Chinese due to the increasing dominance of the widespread use of English in government, education and workplaces in Singapore and the lack of emphasis of Mandarin education in Singapore schools over the past decade.

Tamil is one of the Indian Languages is spoken by most Indians. Like English, the Mandarin spoken in Singapore has also evolved into a distinctive creole and often incorporates words from other Chinese dialects, Malay and English, though all Singaporean Chinese are taught standard Mandarin in school.

Various Non-Mandarin Chinese languages spoken by the majority of the older generations of Chinese Singaporeans and some middle aged generations of Chinese Singaporeans, mostly Minnan Singaporean Hokkien which is primarily based on Xiamen Minnan but mixed with English and Malay loanwords , though significant numbers also speak Cantonese are also spoken between ethnic Chinese of the same language group, though their use has been declining in the younger generation since the s due to government policies discouraging the use of other Chinese languages in favour of Mandarin.

Other Indian languages, such as Punjabi among the Sikhs, are also spoken. The official Chinese script used in Singapore is the simplified script used in mainland China.

As such, all official publications including local newspapers and signs are in simplified Chinese and all ethnic Chinese are taught to write the simplified script in school.

However, the older generations still prefer the traditional style, and the popularity of Hong Kong Cantonese and the resurgence of Taiwanese Minnan pop culture means that most youth can read traditional Chinese.

However, the distinctive local patois Singlish may be hard to understand at times, as it incorporates slang words and phrases from other languages, including various Chinese languages, Malay and Tamil as well as English words, the pronunciation or meaning of which have been corrupted.

Complex consonant clusters are simplified, articles and plurals disappear, verb tenses are replaced by adverbs, questions are altered to fit the Chinese syntax and semirandom particles especially the infamous "lah" appear:.

Thanks to nationwide language education campaigns, most younger Singaporeans are, however, capable of speaking what the government calls "good English" when necessary.

Resist the temptation to sprinkle your speech with unnecessary Singlishisms; it sounds patronizing if you do it wrong, which is highly probable.

When asking for help or directions, it should be noted that due to an influx of foreign workers and immigrants in recent years, there is a chance you might be asking somebody who has not been in Singapore for all that long.

In extreme cases, one might even encounter a person who barely speaks any English or is downright unfriendly. Unfortunately it is difficult to determine at a glance who you should or should not ask for directions, but do not be afraid to try asking another person if the first answer you get is not satisfactory.

A guaranteed way of finding someone willing to help would be to ask a teenager. As a result of compulsory English education, all teenagers speak English and will definitely be able to help.

Rest assured that most bona fide Singaporeans would also be more than happy to help. Western television shows and films are shown in their original language with occasional subtitles into Mandarin.

Television programmes and films that originate in other parts of Asia however, are dubbed into the language of the channel they will be shown at.

This especially applies to programmes and films originally in the Hong Kong Cantonese language and Taiwanese Minnan language, in which case government policy mandates them to be dubbed into Mandarin English subtitles are shown during primetime hours.

Carry around with you a copy of the train network so you know how to get to places without having to go to the train station or look online.

The train network is quite complicated and there can be a number of different routes to get to 1 place. Singapore is notoriously expensive for hotel accommodation.

Backpacker options are affordable and clean. For water sports in particular, the busy shipping lanes and sheer population pressure mean that the sea around Singapore is murky, and most locals head up to Tioman Malaysia or Bintan Indonesia instead.

Singapore may be a young country but it has a constantly evolving artistic landscape that draws its influences from its unique heritage of East and Southeast Asian culture, with a good mix of western touch.

The Renaissance City Project was initiated in by the Singaporean Government to establish Singapore as a regional city of the arts to cultivate artistic interest and culture.

Today, Singapore sees itself flourishing in the third phase of the renaissance city project with new museums, international galleries and art fairs entering the local artistic landscape.

And in , fourteen international galleries arrived at the shore of Singapore housed at The Gillman Barracks, a new artistic area.

The National Art Gallery opened in , and housed in two national monuments - the former Supreme Court Building and City Hall, is the largest visual arts institution in Singapore and also one of the largest regionally, focusing on modern Southeast Asian art through its collections.

On the cultural side of things, Singapore has been trying to shake off its boring, buttoned-up reputation and attract more artists and performances.

Any bands and DJs touring Asia are also pretty much guaranteed to perform in Singapore. Going to the movies is a popular Singaporean pastime, but look for "R21" ratings 21 and up only if you like your movies with fewer cuts.

For an up-do-date guide on alternative events happening around Singapore from concerts, festivals etc, visit City Nomads Singapore.

Singapore has two integrated resorts with casinos. A driver license from your home country will not work.

Besides the casino, there are other forms of legalised betting which are more accessible to the locals.

This includes horse racing, which is run by the Singapore Turf Club [] on weekends, as well as football soccer betting and several lotteries run by the Singapore Pools.

Mahjong is also a popular pastime in Singapore. The version played in Singapore is similar to the Cantonese version, but it also has extra "animal tiles" not present in the original Cantonese version.

However, this remains pretty much a family and friends affair, and there are no mahjong parlours. Despite its small size, Singapore has a surprisingly large number of golf courses, but most of the best ones are run by private clubs and open to members and their guests only.

See the Singapore Golf Association for the full list; alternatively, head to the nearby Indonesian islands of Batam or Bintan or up north to the Malaysian town of Malacca for cheaper rounds.

The inaugural F1 Singapore Grand Prix [] was held at night in September , and is a fixture on the local calendar.

The F1 Organizers have confirmed that the night race will be extended till Held on a street circuit in the heart of Singapore and raced at night, all but race fans will probably wish to avoid this time, as hotel prices especially room with view of the F1 tracks are through the roof.

Besides being a uniquely night race, the carnival atmosphere and pop concert held around the race ground as well as the convenience of hotels and restaurants round the corner, distinguish the race from other F1 races held remotely away from urban centres.

The Singapore Turf Club [] in Kranji hosts horse races most Fridays, including a number of international cups, and is popular with local gamblers.

The Singapore Polo Club [] near Balestier is also open to the public on competition days. There are also numerous shops offering traditional Chinese massage, which are mostly legitimate.

The less legitimate "health centres" have been shut down. Traditional asian-style public baths are non-existent. When looking for beauty salons on Orchard Road, try out the ones on the fourth floor of Lucky Plaza.

They offer most salon services like manicures, pedicures, facials, waxing and hair services. A favorite of flight crew and repeat tourists due to the lower costs as compared to the sky high prices of other salons along the shopping belt.

Shop around for prices, some of the better looking ones actually charge less. When in the Bugis or Kampong Glam walking belt, a good stop to rest weary feet would be at one of the many nail parlours in the area.

Manicures or pedicures are very affordable in Singapore and most salons maintain a high level of hygiene.

Forget your tiny hotel pool if you are into competitive or recreational swimming:

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You can listen here: See our latest Sales job opening here: Happy 30th birthday to our friends ParalympicsGB! T2, arguably the most interesting, has an indoor garden, a music listening area with couches and mood lighting, a computer gaming room, a small movie theatre, paid massage services, and of course plenty of duty-free shops.

T3 has a butterfly garden and plenty of natural light, but fewer entertainment options. You can travel between the three main terminals without passing through immigration and, if you have no checked-in luggage to collect, you can clear passport control and customs at any terminal.

As noted above, Terminal 4 is an exception to this, and you can travel to this terminal only if you have a flight departing from here.

There are also SingTel and Starhub payphones that offer unlimited free local calls. ATMs abound and money changers offer reasonable rates as well, although you pay a small premium compared to the city.

Food options are varied and generally reasonably priced, with some choice picks including the Peranakan-themed Soup Restaurant T2 landside , which serves much more than just soup, and Sakae Sushi T2 airside.

It is relatively cheap compared to other food options in the airport but not exactly cheap compared to elsewhere in Singapore.

There are also staff canteens in Terminals 1 and 3. Terminals T1, T2 and T3 all have airside ie accessible without passing through immigration transit hotels.

Project Jewel was announced in August - a new terminal structure intended as a mix-use complex situated on a 3. Essentially a new multi-storey underground car park will replace the existing facilities, while an indoor garden, with a waterfall, is built above.

Once completed in , the new building will sit between the three existing terminal buildings, enabling passengers to transfer via the new complex, whilst being an attraction and shopping destination in itself.

The design will consist of a circular structure, reminiscent of a doughnut, with a large garden located at the centre and water falling from the edge of the circular atrium opening.

As part of the project, Terminal 1 will be expanded to allow more space for the arrival hall, baggage claim areas and taxi bays.

While later airports like Kallang and Paya Lebar have been closed and turned into a military airbase respectively, Seletar is still in use to this day.

The Causeway is a very popular and thus terminally congested entry point connecting Woodlands in the north of Singapore directly into the heart of Johor Bahru.

The Causeway can be crossed by bus, train, taxi or car, but it is no longer feasible to cross on foot after Malaysia shifted their customs and immigration complex 2km inland.

A second crossing between Malaysia and Singapore, known as the Second Link , has been built between Tuas in western Singapore and Tanjung Kupang in the western part of Johor state.

Much faster and less congested than the Causeway, it is used by some of the luxury bus services to Kuala Lumpur and is strongly recommended if you have your own car.

There is only one infrequent bus across the Second Link, and only Malaysian "limousine" taxis are allowed to cross it and charge RM and up for the privilege.

Walking across is also not allowed, not that there would be any practical means to continue the journey from either end if you did. Peninsular Malaysia-registered cars need to show that they have valid road tax and Malaysian insurance coverage.

Other foreign cars need a Vehicle Registration Certificate, customs document Carnet de Passages en Douane , vehicle insurance purchased from a Singapore-based insurance company and an International Circulation Permit.

Go through immigration first and get your passport stamped. Once that is done, proceed to customs where you will have to open the boot for inspection.

After that, you are free to go anywhere in Singapore. This is done by slotting the AutoPass into the reader at the immigration counter while you get your passport stamped.

Driving into Malaysia from Singapore is relatively uncomplicated, although small tolls are charged for both crossing and for the Second Link the adjoining expressway.

Do be sure to change some ringgit before crossing, as Singapore dollars are accepted only at the unfavourable rate of 1: Moreover, be prepared for longer queues as Malaysia introduced a biometric system for foreigners wishing to enter that country see Malaysia article.

In both directions, car hire agencies often prohibit their vehicles from crossing the border or charge extra. Unfortunately, there is no central bus terminal and different companies leave from all over the city.

Most other operators have banded together in two shared booking portals. Many, but by no means all, use the Golden Mile Complex shopping mall near Bugis as their Singapore terminal.

In general, the more you pay, the faster and more comfortable your trip. Book early for popular departure times like Friday and Sunday evening, Chinese New Year, etc, and factor in some extra time for congestion at the border.

An alternative to taking a direct "international bus" is to make the short hop to Johor Bahru to catch domestic Malaysian long-distance express buses to various Malaysian destinations from the Larkin Bus Terminal.

Besides having more options, fares may also be lower because you will be paying in Malaysian ringgit rather than Singaporean dollars. The downside is the time-consuming hassle of first getting to Johor Bahru and then getting to Larkin terminal on the outskirts of town.

Terminals aside, all buses make two stops at Singapore immigration and at Malaysian immigration. At both immigration points, you must disembark with all your luggage and pass through passport control and customs, then board the next bus by showing your ticket.

Figure on one hour for the whole rigmarole from end to end, more during rush hour. While less frequent and more expensive than buses, and the Woodlands KTMB station is a bus ride away from the MRT system, the trains have dedicated immigration and custom checks areas separated from the very busy road checkpoints, and get you across the Causeway without getting stuck in traffic.

Gates open 30 minutes before each departure for immigration clearance and boarding, and close 10 minutes before departure.

For departures from Woodlands Train Checkpoint, avoid arriving very early as there are very limited facilities, and toilets are only available after immigration.

Photography and video recording are prohibited at the train checkpoint. Tickets can be bought up to 30 days in advance, either in person at KTMB ticket counters or online through the KTMB e-ticketing website , and sold up to 15 minutes before departure if still available.

Booking in advance is recommended, as the service is popular among commuters and weekend shoppers, in particular weekday mornings departures from JB Sentral usually snatched up as soon as tickets are released for booking 30 days in advance and weekend evenings departures from JB Sentral usually sold out on the morning of departure.

For JB Sentral-Woodlands, at JB Sentral there are turnstiles installed at the departure gate Gate A ; scan the barcode or QR code on your ticket can be one stored on a mobile device to activate the turnstile.

Going to Malaysia, both Singapore and Malaysia immigration checks are conveniently done at Woodlands before boarding. Firstly Singapore stamps you out, then walk over to the adjacent hall to get stamp in by Malaysia.

In the reverse direction, Malaysian exit immigration checks are carried out at JB Sentral before boarding, and Singapore immigration checks are done upon arrival at Woodlands.

Despite being located in the same immigration checkpoint complex and having similar names, Woodlands Train Checkpoint is a separate facility from the much larger and busier Woodlands Checkpoint for road vehicles.

If you mistakenly end up in Woodlands Checkpoint and see immigration counters in front of you, you are better off proceeding with immigration clearance and taking a bus across the border, giving the train a miss.

Backtracking is not normally allowed without a strong reason, you will be interviewed by immigration officers before being escorted out of the checkpoint, wasting time and you will still miss the train anyway.

There is also the option of taking a taxi between Singapore and Johor Bahru. The main advantage is that you do not need to lug your stuff or yourself through Immigration and Customs at both ends; you can just sit in the car.

Both Singapore-registered and Malaysian-registered taxis are available. Singapore-registered taxis can bring you to anywhere in Singapore but can only go to Larkin in Johor Bahru, while Malaysian-registered taxis can bring you to anywhere in Malaysia but can only go to Ban San St in Singapore.

Drop-off points other than the taxi terminal in the destination country may incur additional charges; check with the driver before boarding.

Singapore has five ferry terminals which handle international ferries: Operators at Harbourfront include:. For Tanjung Pinang , there are total of 6 ferries a day, increasing to 9 during weekends.

Tanjung Balai is served by Penguin and IndoFalcon from Harbourfront, with six ferries total on weekdays, increasing to 8 during weekends. Ferries shuttle from Singapore to southeastern Johor and are handy for access to the beach resort of Desaru.

The scheduled ferry service to Tioman was discontinued in Singapore is also a popular stop for round-the-world and major regional cruises including those originating from as far as Japan , China , Australia , Europe and North America.

Check with cruise companies and sellers for details. Getting around Singapore is easy: Very few visitors rent cars.

CityMapper Singapore and Google Maps does a pretty good job of figuring out the fastest route by MRT and bus and even estimating taxi fares between any two points.

If you are staying in Singapore for some time or are planning to return to Singapore several times in the future, the EZ-link contactless RFID farecard or a Nets Flash Pay card might be a worthwhile purchase.

You can use the same card for 5 years. The card technology was changed in , but if you have any old cards lying around, they can be exchanged for free with value intact at TransitLink offices in all MRT stations.

Alternatively, the Singapore Tourist Pass available at selected major MRT stations including Changi Airport and Orchard also includes ez-link card functionality and a variety of discounts for attractions.

The passes are valid until the end of operating hours on the day they expire. Single tickets can be purchased for both MRT and buses.

In the case of buses it delays everyone else because the driver has to count fare stages to tell you how much you need to pay. In addition, no change is given for the bus and you will need to buy a separate ticket if you intend to transfer to another bus later in your journey.

Distance based fares have been available since July All commuters will be charged a fare according to the total distance travelled, on the bus, LRT and MRT, and make transfers without incurring additional cost.

They are a cheap and very reliable mode of transportation, and the network covers most points of interest for the visitor. All lines are seamlessly integrated, even if the lines are operated by different transport companies, so you do not need to buy a new ticket to transfer.

All train lines use contactless RFID tickets. Just tap to scan your train ticket at the gantry when entering and exiting the train service area.

To load a new ticket onto an existing card at a ticket machine, just place it on the designated spot and follow the on-screen instructions.

Distance based fares Please remember these points to enjoy the full benefits of distance based fares: The MRT stations are clean and usually equipped with free toilets.

Underground stations have platform screen doors between the train and the platform while most above-ground stations have Half-height Platform Screen Doors HHPSDs so there is no risk of falling onto the tracks.

There are exceptions though, when a staff member comes in to drive the train. In this case, a tape will be put up behind the driving area to prevent passengers from interfering with the driver.

As of October , a Downtown Line extension connects the Chinatown Station with the Expo Station on the Changi Airport Extension, providing travellers with an alternative route to get between Changi Airport and the city.

Buses connect various corners of Singapore, but are slower and harder to use than the MRT. The advantage though of this is you get to see the sights rather than a dark underground tunnel at a low price.

Payment with ez-link or Nets Flashpay card is thus the easiest method: When you alight, tap your card again at the exit, and the difference is refunded.

Inspectors occasionally prowl buses to check that everybody has paid or tapped, so those who are on tourist day passes should tap before sitting down.

Another advantage of ez-link or Nets Flashpay cards is that you will be able to enjoy distance-based fares and avoid the boarding fee.

After midnight on Fridays, Saturdays and before public holidays only , the NightRider services are a fairly convenient way of getting around, with seven lines running every 20min.

As mentioned earlier, gothere. Taxis use meters and are reasonably priced and honest, however, a shortage of taxis in Singapore means that they are often unavailable for hours at a time.

Be aware, however, that taxis are often remarkably difficult to secure, especially during peak commute or shopping hours, or when there is inclement weather.

The advent of ride-sharing apps see below has mitigated this somewhat, though do expect surcharges during periods of high demand. Watch out for surprises though: All such charges are shown on the bottom right-hard corner of the meter, recorded in the printed receipt and explained in tedious detail in a sticker on the window; if you suspect the cab driver is trying to pull a fast one, call the company and ask for an explanation.

Note that there is no surcharge for trips to the airport. While all taxis are equipped to handle and are required to accept credit cards, in practice many cabbies do not accept electronic payment.

Always ask before getting in. Some taxi companies offer booking via SMS, online and mobile app. Despite the costs involved, taxis may sometimes take you to distant locations outside the CBD faster than mass transport.

An airport trip from the city centre may take less than 20min on a taxi but more than 30min on an MRT. In the Central Business District, taxis may pick up passengers only at taxi stands found outside any shopping mall or buildings with their own driveways including virtually all hotels.

At night spots featuring long queues, such as Clarke Quay, you may on occasion be approached by touts offering a quick flat fare to your destination.

This is illegal and very expensive but reasonably safe for you. Drivers, on the other hand, will probably lose their job if caught.

Some Singapore taxi drivers have very poor geographical knowledge and may expect you to know where they should go, so it may be helpful to bring a map of your destination area or directions on finding where you wish to go.

It may also be helpful to write down the address of your destination. Some cabbies may also ask you which route you want to take; most are satisfied with "whichever way is faster".

Beginning April , the major rideshare competitors Uber and Grab have consolidated into a single Grab app with complete coverage and presence in Singapore; Uber will cease to operate in the country.

Before arriving, download the Grab ride-hailing app. Rides are reasonably priced and the app also allows users to hail conventional taxis.

Other options include Ryde and Go Jek which offers competitive prices as well. Trishaws , three-wheeled bicycle taxis, haunt the area around the Singapore River and Chinatown.

Geared purely for tourists, they should be avoided for serious travel as locals do not use them. There is little room for bargaining: Car rental is not a popular option in Singapore.

It is also hardly necessary for tourists since public transport sufficiently covers all areas of the island with a significant population base.

If planning on touring Malaysia by car, it makes much more sense to head across the border to Johor Bahru , where both rentals and petrol are half price, and you have the option of dropping your car off elsewhere in the country.

This also avoids the unwelcome extra attention that Singapore-registered plates tend to get from thieves in Malaysia.

One rental company called smove offers electric vehicle rentals. Since the cars are battery powered, you save on the cost of gas.

They offer their service in the Buona Vista area of Singapore. Roads in Singapore are in excellent condition and driving habits are generally good with most people following the traffic rules due to stringent enforcement, though road courtesy tends to be sorely lacking.

Compared to other major cities around the world like Sydney , Tokyo or Hong Kong , parking spaces are comparatively easier to find in the city centre of Singapore, although peak hour congestion can be quite severe.

Foreign licences in English are valid in Singapore for up to a year from your date of entry, after which you will have to convert your foreign license to a Singapore one.

Foreign licences not in English must be accompanied by an International Driving Permit IDP or an official English translation usually available from your embassy for them to be valid.

Singaporeans drive on the left UK style and the driving age is ERP gantries are activated at different times, usually in the expected direction of most cars.

As a rule of thumb, gantries found in roads leading to the CBD are activated during the morning rush hour while gantries found in roads exiting the CBD are activated during the evening rush hour.

Passing through an active ERP gantry with insufficient value will mean that an alert is sent to your registered address.

You will need to pay an administrative fee in addition to the difference between the remaining amount and the actual charge.

You have a limited time to settle this otherwise your penalty becomes heavier. All passengers must wear seatbelts and using a phone while driving is banned.

Drink-driving is not tolerated: Even if your blood alcohol level does not exceed the legal limit, you can still be charged with drink driving if the police are convinced that your ability to control the vehicle has been compromised by the presence of alcohol i.

The police do conduct periodic roadblocks and speed cameras are omnipresent. Fines will be sent by mail to you or your rental agency, who will then pass on the cost with a surcharge.

Bicycles are more commonly used in Singapore as a form of recreation rather than as a substitute for public transportation. While the city is small and its landscape is flat, it can be difficult to predict how ridable a route will be without scoping it out first.

Weather can also be a problem, as the tropical humidity and heat make it unpleasant to engage in physical activity outdoors. The air quality also plummets when the thick smoke from Indonesian fires descends on Singapore.

This period usually arrives during the mid-year when Indonesia farmers perform the "slash and burn" method of removing waste crops.

However, bicycling is gradually becoming a more common mode of transportation, especially with the advent of station-free bike-sharing services like ofo and Mobike Singapore.

These bikes can be easily found at major pedestrian-transit areas like bus stops and outside shopping malls, and can be rented using a simple smartphone app for a very low price.

Small folding bicycles may be taken on the MRT during certain times of the day, but large bicycles are a no-no.

Bicycles may cross the Causeway to Malaysia on motorbike lanes , but are not allowed on expressways. In the main business district and on main roadways, pavements and pedestrian crossings are in good shape and plentiful.

This is, however, rarely if ever enforced. An unavoidable downside, though, is the tropical heat and humidity , which leaves many visitors sweaty and exhausted, so bring along a handkerchief and a bottle of water.

Alternatively, after sundown, evenings can also be comparatively cool. A useful tip to combat the tropical weather is to look out for air-conditioned underground pedestrian crossings.

These climate-controlled walkways are plentiful and often located between shopping malls and high-rise office buildings. In addition, look out for the pedestrian walkways connecting to underground MRT stations.

Classic walks in Singapore include walking down the river from the Merlion through the Quays, trekking along the Southern Ridges Walk or just strolling around Chinatown , Little India or Bugis.

Kick scooters are a good alternative to walking, taking less than a quarter of the time depending on the distance you are going. Kick scooters are a convenient way of getting around, especially when combined with public transport.

As opposed to bicycles, kick scooters are allowed on pedestrian walkways, as long as you are mindful of other pedestrians around you.

You can also rent motorcycles to ride around the city and even to Malaysia. Find those rentals with comprehensive insurance in Singapore and Malaysia.

Helmets are compulsory when riding motorcycles in Singapore. In , Singapore became the first country in the world to trial on-demand driverless taxis , allowing passengers to book a ride in a self-driving vehicle through the Grab ride-hailing app by selecting the "robo-car" fleet icon during booking.

This partnership between nuTonomy and Grab has proven to be successful and popular with riders. However, tourists may find it challenging to access these driverless taxis as the current trial is limited to the one-north business district in Singapore.

Tourists can ride the driverless vehicle between Bayfront Plaza and the Flower Dome to see more of the Gardens. On-board commentary is also provided so passengers can learn more about self-driving vehicle technology and the garden surroundings.

Visitors need to collect a timeslot coupon from the AutoRider counter at Bayfront Plaza before purchasing tickets.

Who are the people in your neighbourhood? The Big 3 — Chinese, Malays and Indians — get all the press, but there are plenty of other communities with their own little neighbourhoods or shopping malls in Singapore: Lucky Plaza, on Orchard Rd French: Tanjong Pagar Rd Peranakan Chinese: Malay may be enshrined in the Constitution as the national language, but in practice the most common language is English, spoken by almost every Singaporean under the age of 50 with varying degrees of fluency.

English is spoken much better here than in most Asian neighbours. English is also the medium of instruction in schools, except for mother tongue subjects e.

Malay, Mandarin and Tamil , which are also required to be learned in school by Singaporeans. In addition, all official signs and documents are written in English, usually using British spelling.

Mandarin is spoken by many older and middle aged Singaporean Chinese while many young Singaporean Chinese speak mostly English and sometimes Mandarin Chinese though fluency and proficiency of Mandarin Chinese varies among younger Singaporean Chinese due to the increasing dominance of the widespread use of English in government, education and workplaces in Singapore and the lack of emphasis of Mandarin education in Singapore schools over the past decade.

Tamil is one of the Indian Languages is spoken by most Indians. Like English, the Mandarin spoken in Singapore has also evolved into a distinctive creole and often incorporates words from other Chinese dialects, Malay and English, though all Singaporean Chinese are taught standard Mandarin in school.

Various Non-Mandarin Chinese languages spoken by the majority of the older generations of Chinese Singaporeans and some middle aged generations of Chinese Singaporeans, mostly Minnan Singaporean Hokkien which is primarily based on Xiamen Minnan but mixed with English and Malay loanwords , though significant numbers also speak Cantonese are also spoken between ethnic Chinese of the same language group, though their use has been declining in the younger generation since the s due to government policies discouraging the use of other Chinese languages in favour of Mandarin.

Other Indian languages, such as Punjabi among the Sikhs, are also spoken. The official Chinese script used in Singapore is the simplified script used in mainland China.

As such, all official publications including local newspapers and signs are in simplified Chinese and all ethnic Chinese are taught to write the simplified script in school.

However, the older generations still prefer the traditional style, and the popularity of Hong Kong Cantonese and the resurgence of Taiwanese Minnan pop culture means that most youth can read traditional Chinese.

However, the distinctive local patois Singlish may be hard to understand at times, as it incorporates slang words and phrases from other languages, including various Chinese languages, Malay and Tamil as well as English words, the pronunciation or meaning of which have been corrupted.

Complex consonant clusters are simplified, articles and plurals disappear, verb tenses are replaced by adverbs, questions are altered to fit the Chinese syntax and semirandom particles especially the infamous "lah" appear:.

Thanks to nationwide language education campaigns, most younger Singaporeans are, however, capable of speaking what the government calls "good English" when necessary.

Resist the temptation to sprinkle your speech with unnecessary Singlishisms; it sounds patronizing if you do it wrong, which is highly probable.

When asking for help or directions, it should be noted that due to an influx of foreign workers and immigrants in recent years, there is a chance you might be asking somebody who has not been in Singapore for all that long.

In extreme cases, one might even encounter a person who barely speaks any English or is downright unfriendly.

Unfortunately it is difficult to determine at a glance who you should or should not ask for directions, but do not be afraid to try asking another person if the first answer you get is not satisfactory.

A guaranteed way of finding someone willing to help would be to ask a teenager. As a result of compulsory English education, all teenagers speak English and will definitely be able to help.

Rest assured that most bona fide Singaporeans would also be more than happy to help. Western television shows and films are shown in their original language with occasional subtitles into Mandarin.

Television programmes and films that originate in other parts of Asia however, are dubbed into the language of the channel they will be shown at.

This especially applies to programmes and films originally in the Hong Kong Cantonese language and Taiwanese Minnan language, in which case government policy mandates them to be dubbed into Mandarin English subtitles are shown during primetime hours.

Carry around with you a copy of the train network so you know how to get to places without having to go to the train station or look online. The train network is quite complicated and there can be a number of different routes to get to 1 place.

Singapore is notoriously expensive for hotel accommodation. Backpacker options are affordable and clean. For water sports in particular, the busy shipping lanes and sheer population pressure mean that the sea around Singapore is murky, and most locals head up to Tioman Malaysia or Bintan Indonesia instead.

Singapore may be a young country but it has a constantly evolving artistic landscape that draws its influences from its unique heritage of East and Southeast Asian culture, with a good mix of western touch.

The Renaissance City Project was initiated in by the Singaporean Government to establish Singapore as a regional city of the arts to cultivate artistic interest and culture.

Today, Singapore sees itself flourishing in the third phase of the renaissance city project with new museums, international galleries and art fairs entering the local artistic landscape.

And in , fourteen international galleries arrived at the shore of Singapore housed at The Gillman Barracks, a new artistic area. The National Art Gallery opened in , and housed in two national monuments - the former Supreme Court Building and City Hall, is the largest visual arts institution in Singapore and also one of the largest regionally, focusing on modern Southeast Asian art through its collections.

On the cultural side of things, Singapore has been trying to shake off its boring, buttoned-up reputation and attract more artists and performances.

Any bands and DJs touring Asia are also pretty much guaranteed to perform in Singapore. Going to the movies is a popular Singaporean pastime, but look for "R21" ratings 21 and up only if you like your movies with fewer cuts.

For an up-do-date guide on alternative events happening around Singapore from concerts, festivals etc, visit City Nomads Singapore. Singapore has two integrated resorts with casinos.

A driver license from your home country will not work. Besides the casino, there are other forms of legalised betting which are more accessible to the locals.

This includes horse racing, which is run by the Singapore Turf Club [] on weekends, as well as football soccer betting and several lotteries run by the Singapore Pools.

Mahjong is also a popular pastime in Singapore. The version played in Singapore is similar to the Cantonese version, but it also has extra "animal tiles" not present in the original Cantonese version.

However, this remains pretty much a family and friends affair, and there are no mahjong parlours. Despite its small size, Singapore has a surprisingly large number of golf courses, but most of the best ones are run by private clubs and open to members and their guests only.

See the Singapore Golf Association for the full list; alternatively, head to the nearby Indonesian islands of Batam or Bintan or up north to the Malaysian town of Malacca for cheaper rounds.

The inaugural F1 Singapore Grand Prix [] was held at night in September , and is a fixture on the local calendar.

The F1 Organizers have confirmed that the night race will be extended till Held on a street circuit in the heart of Singapore and raced at night, all but race fans will probably wish to avoid this time, as hotel prices especially room with view of the F1 tracks are through the roof.

Besides being a uniquely night race, the carnival atmosphere and pop concert held around the race ground as well as the convenience of hotels and restaurants round the corner, distinguish the race from other F1 races held remotely away from urban centres.

The Singapore Turf Club [] in Kranji hosts horse races most Fridays, including a number of international cups, and is popular with local gamblers.

The Singapore Polo Club [] near Balestier is also open to the public on competition days. There are also numerous shops offering traditional Chinese massage, which are mostly legitimate.

The less legitimate "health centres" have been shut down. Traditional asian-style public baths are non-existent. Both plants are native from the region between Island Southeast Asia to Australasia.

The origin of the domestication of Piper betle , however, is unknown. It is also unknown when the two were combined, as areca nut alone can be chewed for its narcotic properties.

There are very old claims of betel chewing dating to at least 13, BP at the Kuk Swamp site in New Guinea , based on probable Areca sp.

However, it is now known that these might have been due to modern contamination of sample materials. Similar claims have also been made at other older sites with Areca sp.

The oldest unequivocal evidence of betel chewing is from the Philippines. The dentition of the skeletons are stained, typical of betel chewers.

The grave also includes Anadara shells used as containers of lime, one of which still contained lime. Burial sites in Bohol dated to the first millenium CE also show the distinctive reddish stains characteristic of betel chewing.

From the Philippines, it spread back to Taiwan , as well as onwards to the rest of Austronesia. It reached Micronesia at around 3, to 3, BP with the Austronesian voyagers, based on both linguistic and archaeological evidence.

But it did not reach Polynesia further east. It is believed that it stopped in the Solomon Islands due to the replacement of betel chewing with the tradition of kava drinking prepared from the related Piper methysticum.

The practice also diffused to the cultures the Austronesians had historical contact with. It is from this period that skeletons with characteristic red-stained teeth start to appear in Mainland Southeast Asia.

It is assumed that it reached South China and Hainan at around the same time, though no archaeological evidence for this can be found as of yet.

In Cambodia , the earliest evidence of betel nut chewing is from around 2, to 2, BP. It also spread to Thailand at 1, BP , based on archaeobotanical evidence.

Chinese records, specifically Linyi Ji by Dongfang Shuo associate the growing of areca palms with the first settlers of the Austronesian Champa polities in southern Vietnam at around 2, to 1, BP.

The same for the alternate term bin men yao jian , literally meaning "guest [at the door] medicinal sweetmeat". This also coincides with the introduction of Southeast Asian plants like Santalum album and Cocos nucifera , as well as the adoption of the Austronesian outrigger ship and crab-claw sail technologies by Dravidian-speakers.

From there it followed the Silk Road to Persia and into the Mediterranean. Chewing the mixture of areca nut and betel leaf is a tradition, custom or ritual which dates back thousands of years from India to the Pacific.

Ibn Battuta describes this practice as follows: The betel has no fruit and is grown only for the sake of its leaves The manner of its use is that before eating it one takes areca nut; this is like a nutmeg but is broken up until it is reduced to small pellets, and one places these in his mouth and chews them.

Then he takes the leaves of betel, puts a little chalk on them, and masticates them along with the betel.

Paan chewing constitutes an important and popular cultural activity in many Asian and Oceanic countries, including India , Myanmar , Cambodia , the Solomon Islands , Thailand , the Philippines , Laos , and Vietnam.

Paan is a ubiquitous sight in many parts of South and Southeast Asia. In South Asia it is known as paan in Assamese , foah in Dhivehi , beeda in Hindi, thambula in Kannada , vetrrilai or thambulam in Tamil , killi and tambulum in Telugu , bulath in Sinhalese , and gillauri in Urdu.

In urban areas, chewing paan is generally considered a nuisance because some chewers spit the paan out in public areas — compare chewing gum ban in Singapore and smoking ban.

The red stain generated by the combination of ingredients when chewed are known to make a colourful stain on the ground. This is becoming an unwanted eyesore in Indian cities such as Mumbai, although many see it as an integral part of Indian culture.

Recently, the Dubai government has banned the import and sale of paan and the like. According to traditional Ayurvedic medicine , chewing betel leaf is a remedy against bad breath halitosis , [17] but it can possibly lead to oral cancer.

An elaborate betel chew or paan would contain fragrant spices and rose preserves with chopped areca nuts. It is a tradition in South India and nearby regions to give two Betel leaves, areca nut pieces or whole and Coconut to the guests both male and female at any auspicious occasion.

Even on a regular day it is the tradition to give a married woman, who visits the house, two Betel leaves, areca nut and coconut or some fruits along with a string of threaded flowers.

This is referred to as tambolam. Betel leaf used to make paan is produced in different parts of India. In West Bengal two types of betel leaves are produced.

Mitha patta is produced in places such as Midnapur and South 24 Parganas. The skilled paan maker is known as a paanwala in North India.

In other parts, paanwalas are also known as panwaris or panwadis. At North India, there is a tradition to chew paan after Deepawali puja for blessings.

Furthermore, the use of paan is also prevalent in the Punjab. So much so that shops selling paan legally have sprung up in western cities such as Toronto, London, and Vancouver to name a few due to the large number of people of Punjabi descent living in those regions.

In the Indian state of Maharashtra the paan culture is widely criticised due to the cleanliness problems created by people who spit in public places.

In Mumbai, there have been attempts to put pictures of Hindu gods in places where people commonly tend to spit, in the hope that this would discourage spitting, but success has been limited.

One of the great Marathi artists P L Deshpande wrote a comic story on the subject of paanwala paan vendor , and performed a televised reading session on Doordarshan during the s in his unique style.

Paan is losing its appeal to farmers because of falling demand. Consumers prefer chewing tobacco formulations such as gutka over paan.

Higher costs, water scarcity and unpredictable weather have made betel gardens less lucrative. In Assam , betel nut are traditionally offered as a mark of respect and auspicious beginnings.

It is a tradition to offer pan-tamul betel leaves and raw areca nut to guests, after tea or meals, served in a brass plate with stands called bota.

Among the Assamese, the areca nut also has a variety of uses during religious and marriage ceremonies, where it has the role of a fertility symbol.

When showing respect to elders, people, especially newly weds place a pair of paan Tamul on a xorai , places it in front of the elder a plate like utensil with a stand and bows in front of it to show respect or while asking for forgiveness.

A tradition from Assam is to invite guests to wedding receptions by offering a few areca nuts with betel leaves. During Bihu , the husori players are offered areca nuts and betel leaves by each household while their blessings are solicited.

A customary Paan-Tamul Betel nut leaf- Betel nut is offered to guests after the end of every Bhoj[feast]. This is usually the Paan-Tamul-Soon Slacked lime with cardamom pods in it to freshen the breath.

Bersirih , nyirih or menginang is a Malay - Indonesian tradition of chewing materials such as nut , betel , gambier , tobacco , clove and limestone.

In the Malay archipelago , the menginang or betel nut chewing has become a revered activity in local tradition; being a ceremoniously conducted gesture to honour guests.

A complete and elaborate set of sirih pinang equipment is called Tepak Sirih , pekinangan or cerana.

4 thought on “Kaugummi rolle”

  1. Virisar says:

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  2. Taujora says:

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  3. Mazujar says:

    Das geht dich nichts an!

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