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Low or high external temperatures drain the battery, as does the use of the radio or air-conditioning system.
Constant acceleration and braking likewise reduces the range. Electromobility is making advances worldwide.
That means Germany ranks fourth in the world. The front-runner is China, where , e-cars and plug-in hybrids were sold in The country aims to drive electromobility by means of strict regulations so as to ensure that at least 5 million e-cars are on the road by China is imposing a production quota as of to achieve that: Initially, every one-in-ten of all cars built there must be powered by an electric motor, a figure that is to rise to 12 percent from on.
However, the Scandinavian country has the highest ratio of e-cars. Norway is the role model for electromobility: For the first time, more vehicles with a hybrid and electric drive than with a combustion engine were registered there in — thanks to massive subsidization.
The government taxes conventional cars heavily, whereas no taxes are incurred if clean cars are purchased. Further benefits are lower vehicle tax and free use of toll roads and state-run ferries.
From , only zero-emission cars are to be sold in Norway. More and more manufacturers are launching not only e-cars, but also commercial vehicles with an electric motor which are suitable for everyday use — the Mercedes e-Vito and the Renault Master Z.
DHL has become one of the leading makers of electric vans: Electric vehicles are changing the way we move — not only because they are more eco-friendly.
An e-car costs more than a comparable gasoline or diesel vehicle — mainly due to the large costs of producing the battery, although its prices have fallen in the past years.
However, electricity is cheaper than fossil fuels. Moreover, electric vehicles require less maintenance and fewer repairs. A combustion engine has around 2, components that have to be made and assembled — compared with just in an electric motor.
E-cars can be serviced quickly by software updates over the air SOTA. The lithium-ion batteries used in e-cars have a long service life, boast a high energy density and can be recharged many times over.
They simply store less energy. Most batteries in e-cars today have a capacity of 20 to 60 kilowatt hours.
The batteries in e-cars are to be used in future to stabilize smart grids. Supply and demand for electricity may diverge, depending on the weather.
Intelligent car charging technology should then be used to absorb excess energy, for instance, when there is a lot of sunshine. By installing a photovoltaic system on the roof of their home, e-car owners can reduce dependence on external sources of power — and, with a wall box, eliminate the need to drive to a service station.
An additional means of storage at home can also collect energy for times when the sun shines less. The electronics in e-cars must be powerful and efficient — they influence how far and fast the cars can travel.
Power semiconductors made of silicon carbide SiC are setting new standards here. Silicon carbide can handle higher loads and stresses than silicon Si — and needs less energy for that, even at high temperatures.
Electrical power can be converted in a far more efficient and compact manner thanks to higher switching speeds and lower conduction power losses than silicon-based components.
The lower losses also mean that less cooling of the battery is required. That ensures higher efficiency and fewer heat sinks on the battery — making it smaller and lighter.
Electric cars deliver high performance and have a far higher efficiency than vehicles with a combustion engine: The ratio between the energy that is fed in and can be used is around 90 percent for electric powertrains.
That figure is just 35 percent for gasoline engines and 45 for diesel engines. The rest is lost as heat, for instance. Due to the fact that a high torque is available immediately, e-cars can accelerate faster from 0.
They can also obtain energy with the aid of the inverter, such as when they brake, and feed it back to the battery. This effect is called recuperation.
E-cars have special rights in some countries and cities: In Germany, they can park free of charge in Hamburg and Stuttgart and use the bus lanes in Dortmund, for example.
E-car drivers in Norway have even more privileges. Since powerful car batteries are still very expensive, the price of e-cars is on average higher than that of comparable models with a combustion engine.
But for whom is buying an e-car worthwhile? Assuming a distance traveled of 9, kilometers a year and a service life of eight years, the total cost of ownership of an e-car can be lower than a vehicle with a conventional drive.
Despite its many advantages, there are other challenges relating to electromobility in addition to the fact that the price of an e-car is still high at present.
E-cars are very quiet. That means a lot less noise, especially in cities and along main roads. Pedestrians and cyclists will have to get used to that first.
However, if electric cars are moving at low speed, they are so quiet that they might not even be heard at all.
If the e-car is traveling faster, the noise made by its tires can be heard anyway. To ensure that e-cars are zero-emission in the full sense of the word, their electricity must come from renewable sources and not, for example, coal-fired power plants, while production of the battery must also be CO 2 -neutral.
The use of renewable energies is also the objective of the German government: If the costly, resource-intensive process of producing batteries becomes even more eco-friendly, that advantage will be even greater, states the research institute.
The attractiveness of electromobility stands and falls by the batteries: What distance can the cars cover with them, how much do they cost, what do they weigh?
New technologies, as well as elements from the semiconductor material silicon carbide SiC , are required to achieve higher efficiencies and top performance.
The low range of e-cars at present deters many from buying one, according to a survey by the business consulting firm Deloitte.
Yet most of us could now already use an electric vehicle for many of the journeys we make without any problem. Germans drive less than 40 kilometers on average on more than 80 percent of the days they use a car, states the Federal Ministry for the Environment.
The average American travels The figure for Norwegians is around Other respondents criticized the fact that the network of charging stations still needs to be improved.
Oslo alone operates 1, charging stations, whereas the number for the whole of Germany in March was just under 10, charging points at around 5, stations according to the Federal Network Agency.
However, the number keeps on growing. The German government wants there to be 15, nationwide by China is going much further: However, the charging infrastructure has differed so far from country to country and there is no consistent standard.
Electromobility is one of the most exciting topics of today — and it is set to play an even greater role in the future.
Do you want to help drive these developments? Then get in touch with us so that we can connect your creativity with our technology.
For all vacant positions in the field of electromobility, please visit our career website. Do you want to know more about typical profiles that deal with electromobility at Infineon?
Chips from Infineon were found in eight of the ten most-sold fully electric cars and plug-in hybrids in Power losses need to be minimized, power savings maximized, and overall performance increased.
Infineon offers a wide range of power semiconductor components for the various systems. They cut the costs for the drive and electronics, yet increase energy efficiency.
In general, demand for semiconductors will increase sharply as electromobility becomes more widespread. Infineon assumes that more and more components with silicon carbide power semiconductors will be used in new developments in the future — such as the charger in the car, the inverter or the DC-DC converter.
This is the key component in the drive train of electric cars, controlling the energy flow between battery and motor.
Electronic components in e-cars require different voltage levels. Designers strive to maximize efficiency and reduce the required space of this conversion.
In electric cars, air conditioning, electronic power steering, PTC heater, oil pumps and cooling pumps etc. As these auxiliary systems now run on valuable power from the high-voltage battery designers are working on power-on-demand solutions to make them more energy efficient.
All electronic systems in an electric vehicle rely on the battery for power. An on-board charger unit allows drivers to charge their battery from any standard power outlets.
But voltage and current levels in countries differ, and so system designers are aiming for more design flexibility and higher power density in chargers with a small form factor.
The latter company builds electric vehicles such as the ES8, which delivers kilowatts of power, in Munich. Numerous components from Infineon are used in it and many other e-cars.
There is growing demand for technologies that enable faster charging and longer ranges for electric vehicles.
They are two vital criteria in ensuring e-cars become established. Infineon has semiconductors for the internal power supply and a complete DC charging device.
New charging stations use Infineon semiconductors which are intended to reduce the charging time to 20 minutes. New technologies based on silicon carbide SiC are essential in enabling fast charging.
Innovations like active battery balancing are already increasing battery capacity, range and service life by more than ten percent. However, there are even more possible approaches to increasing the efficacy of electric vehicles.
That can be done, for example, by the battery supplying energy only when needed or by designing the air-conditioning and heating system to be as efficient as possible.
Not least, charging e-cars demands a flexible switching structure; after all, the charger has to be able to cope with different voltage levels and current strengths in different countries.
Infineon helps solve these and similar requirements with its broad range of powerful, yet energy-efficient components and know-how to match. Despite all the highly promising forecasts, electromobility is still in its infancy — not only as regards its low market share to date, but also from a technical perspective.
Electromobility will only live up to the hopes pinned on it if the price of cars and batteries falls, charging networks grow and also become more intelligent, and e-cars achieve a level of energy efficiency to make them ready for the market.
A lot is happening, especially in terms of energy efficiency. Companies and researchers are continuously working to enhance batteries.
Initial tests on a battery with an electrolyte based on water instead of lithium salts sound highly promising.
That might give rise to a safe, efficient and low-cost new battery technology. Better batteries will increase the range and reduce charging time — two crucial incentives for users.
A comprehensive network of charging stations is vital if electromobility is to become established. That is why the physicist and e-mobility expert Richard Randoll predicts: At least every tenth new car worldwide will be an electric one by Hydrogen vehicles are likewise driven by an electric motor.
However, they use a fuel cell instead of a battery. A chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen generates electricity. There are no emissions — the only by-product is steam.
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