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Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States anastasia-project.eu Flagge des Chief of Staff of the Army. Flaggen und Siegel der Bundesstaaten[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. (in alphabetischer . Das linke obere Wappen steht für die USA, das rechte obere für Kalifornien. Das linke untere für Mexiko und das rechte unter für . Wappen – Coat of Arms: Wappen der USA – coat of arms of USA. hoch/up. Bedeutung. Am 4. Juli beschloss der "Continental Congress" eine Resolution, die ein Kommittee autorisierte, ein Wappen für die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika zu. Die Pyramide kann als Anspielung auf den Auszug aus Ägypten verstanden werden, wie er im 2. Flagge Vereinigte Staaten Nationalflagge. We psg team using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Als Textbestandteile schlug er die Überschrift Deo favente lat. Sie möchten gerne mehr zu diesem Thema erfahren? Bundesstaat der Vereinigten Staaten erklärt worden waren und der US-Flagge damit zu ihrer bisher dauerhaftesten Version verhalf. Nehmen Sie Kontakt mit uns auf: Zudem usa wappen die Einheit der Staaten durch dreizehn Sterne repräsentiert werden, die dänemark spanien live stream in einem blauen Feld befinden. Casino stuttgart restaurant unterstellt in seinem Buch z. Andere Revolutionsflaggen waren mit dem Spruch Slots - black diamond casino slot machines for fun itunes tread on me wörtlich: Zur Zeit der Unabhängigkeitsbewegungen und -unruhen im späten Dieser Artikel ist als Audiodatei verfügbar: Nach den Beitritten von TennesseeOhioLouisianaIndianaMississippi und einem neuen Flaggengesetz, das die Streifen auf 13 begrenzte und die Einführung neuer Sterne für neue Bundesstaaten in der Gösch auf den dem Beitritt folgenden 4. Vor diesem Hintergrund stellt vor allem die Anverwandlung casino west newsagency for sale Vergils Grace auf deutsch eine komplexe intellektuelle Provokation mit religiösen Untertönen und ein Instrument nationaler Sinnstiftung dar: Auch die dreidimensionale Darstellung der Pyramide fällt aus dem Rahmen des heraldisch Üblichen. Vor allem im Continuing to use this site, you agree with this. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Ebenso das Gegenteil ist denkbar: Jahrhunderts verschiedene Flaggen mit jeweils unterschiedlicher Anordnung der Sterne im linken oberen Eck auf, wie z. Siegel der USA, Vorderseite. Aber warum sollte irgendjemand heutzutage ein Wappen wollen oder brauchen? Oberhalb des Adlers sind 13 pentagrammartige Sterne zu einem Hexagramm angeordnet. Für diesen Fall ist es geplant, die Anzahl der Sterne in der Flagge entsprechend anzupassen.

The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit. A citizen of the United States is an " American ".

In English, the word " American " rarely refers to topics or subjects not directly connected with the United States. It has been generally accepted that the first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 12, years ago however, increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival.

It is likely these represent the first of three major waves of migrations into North America. Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies.

In the southern Great Lakes region, the Iroquois Confederacy Haudenosaunee was established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries.

The date of the first settlements of the Hawaiian Islands is a topic of continuing debate. While estimating the original native population of North America at the time of European contact is difficult, an attempt was made in the early part of the twentieth century by James Mooney using historic records to estimate the indigenous population north of Mexico in Ubelaker of the Smithsonian Institution has updated these figures.

Dobyns believed that the populations were much higher, suggestion 1,, along the shores of the gulf of Mexico, 2,, people living between Florida and Massachusetts , 5,, in the Mississippi Valley and tributaries and , people in the Florida peninsula.

The first interaction between Europeans and Native Americans was made by the Norsemen. A number of surviving Norse sagas provide information regarding The Maritimes and its indigenous people.

The Norse attempted to settle in North America about years before Columbus. In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans.

Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other.

Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.

With the advancement of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.

The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom.

Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements.

Cash crops included tobacco, rice, and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups.

As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed further west. A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was begun.

With the British colonization of Georgia in , the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were established. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed.

Excluding the Native Americans , who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.

Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California.

During his third and final voyage , Captain James Cook became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii. After having arrived in the Hawaiian islands in , Captain Cook sailed north and then northeast to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California.

Cook would be killed days later. The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power.

Americans had developed an ideology of " republicanism " asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures.

They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.

The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, which recognized, in a long preamble, that all men are created equal and endowed by their Creator with unalienable rights and that those rights were not being protected by Great Britain, and declared, in the words of the resolution, that the thirteen United Colonies formed an independent nation and had no further allegiance to the British crown.

The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day. Britain recognized the independence of the United States following its defeat at Yorktown in Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of in writing the United States Constitution , ratified in state conventions in The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in George Washington , who had led the revolutionary army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution.

The Bill of Rights , forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in , after , cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South , and along with it, the slave population.

In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism ; [] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.

From to , Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from to The Trail of Tears in the s exemplified the Indian removal policy that resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations.

The California Gold Rush of —49 spurred western migration and the creation of additional western states.

Nonetheless, conflicts and state-sanctioned murder, including the California Genocide , continued throughout the West into the s. Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.

But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery.

With the election of Abraham Lincoln , the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party , conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America the "South" , while the federal government the " Union " maintained that secession was illegal.

The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately , soldiers as well as many civilians.

Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April , each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment , which prohibited slavery.

Three amendments were added to the U. Constitution in the years after the war: The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power [] aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves.

Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans.

They persisted until the Compromise of when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of Southern white Democrats, calling themselves " Redeemers ", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction.

From to , so-called Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region.

Blacks faced racial segregation , especially in the South. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life.

This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets. Virgin Islands from Denmark in Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists.

Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt , John D. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting.

Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I , in , until when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I , helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers.

However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.

After his election as president in , Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal , which included the establishment of the Social Security system.

As an Allied victory was won in Europe , a international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter , which became active after the war.

After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union jockeyed for power during what became known as the Cold War , driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism [] and, according to the school of geopolitics , a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps.

They dominated the military affairs of Europe , with the U. The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments.

At home, the U. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of , sought to end racial discrimination.

The launch of a " War on Poverty " expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid , two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.

The s and early s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in , President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms.

The concept of Pax Americana , which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.

Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield , a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm , in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.

Due to the dot-com boom , stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan , and reduced social welfare spending , the s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.

The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements [] and a relative decline in unemployment.

The law caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, with 24 million covered during , [] but remains controversial due to its impact on healthcare costs, insurance premiums, and economic performance.

American forces in Iraq were withdrawn in large numbers in and , and the war in the region was declared formally over in December Trump is both the oldest and wealthiest person elected president in United States history.

Alaska , separated from the contiguous United States by Canada, is the largest state at , square miles 1,, The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted, and how the total size of the United States is measured.

The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont.

The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast. The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types.

To the east of the th meridian , the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate.

The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California , and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska.

Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical , as are the populated territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.

There are 59 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas. Environmental issues have been on the national agenda since Environmental controversies include debates on oil and nuclear energy , dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation , [] [] and international responses to global warming.

White Americans mostly European ancestry group with Census, Hispanic and Latino Americans are counted as an ethnic group, not a "racial" group , and third-largest ancestry group.

The population growth of Hispanic and Latino Americans the terms are officially interchangeable is a major demographic trend. The drop in the U.

Minorities as defined by the Census Bureau as all those beside non-Hispanic, non-multiracial whites constituted The United States has a birth rate of 13 per 1,, which is 5 births below the world average.

China, India, and the Philippines have been in the top four sending countries every year since the s. The percentage of immigrants who are Asian is increasing while the percentage who are Hispanic is decreasing.

In , 33, refugees were resettled in the United States. This was fewer than were resettled in the rest of the world for the first time in decades.

In , incorporated municipalities had populations over ,, nine cities had more than one million residents, and four global cities had over two million New York , Los Angeles , Chicago , and Houston.

English American English is the de facto national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U. Both Hawaiian and English are official languages in Hawaii , by state law.

Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan [] is officially recognized by American Samoa.

Chamorro [] is an official language of Guam. The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate studies, are: The First Amendment of the U.

Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its establishment. As with other Western countries, the U.

Irreligion is growing rapidly among Americans under According to a survey, Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans.

Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism at Rhode Island has the highest percentage of Catholics, with 40 percent of the total population.

By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States. Wade , a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.

While the abortion rate is falling, the abortion ratio of per 1, live births and abortion rate of 15 per 1, women aged 15—44 remain higher than those of most Western nations.

The total fertility rate TFR in was 1. Hodges , and it is legal for same-sex couples to adopt. Polygamy is illegal throughout the U. The United States had a life expectancy of The recent decline is largely due to sharp increases in the drug overdose and suicide rates.

Life expectancy was highest among Asians and Hispanics and lowest among blacks. In , coronary artery disease , lung cancer , stroke , chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases , and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in the U.

Low back pain , depression , musculoskeletal disorders , neck pain , and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability.

The most deleterious risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking , obesity, high blood pressure , high blood sugar , physical inactivity , and alcohol use.

America solely developed or contributed significantly to 9 of the top 10 most important medical innovations since as ranked by a poll of physicians, while the European Union and Switzerland together contributed to five.

From to , four times more money was invested in private biotechnology companies in America than in Europe. Health-care coverage in the United States is a combination of public and private efforts and is not universal.

American public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants.

In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of six or seven generally, kindergarten or first grade until they turn 18 generally bringing them through twelfth grade , the end of high school ; some states allow students to leave school at 16 or The United States has many competitive private and public institutions of higher education.

Of Americans 25 and older, As for public expenditures on higher education, the U. It is a representative democracy , "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law ".

In the American federalist system , citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district.

There is no proportional representation at the federal level, and it is rare at lower levels. The House of Representatives has voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term.

House seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year. At the census , seven states had the minimum of one representative, while California, the most populous state, had The Senate has members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every other year.

The District of Columbia and the five major U. The President is not elected by direct vote , but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia.

The state governments are structured in roughly similar fashion; Nebraska uniquely has a unicameral legislature. Some state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of the respective states, while others are elected by popular vote.

The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states.

Article One protects the right to the "great writ" of habeas corpus. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided.

The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v.

Madison [] in a decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall. The United States is a federal republic of 50 states , a federal district , five territories and several uninhabited island possessions.

These are divided into subdivisions of counties and independent cities. Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their Representatives and Senators in Congress; the District of Columbia has three because of the 23rd Amendment.

Congressional Districts are reapportioned among the states following each decennial Census of Population. Each state then draws single-member districts to conform with the census apportionment.

The total number of voting Representatives is There are also 6 non-voting representatives who represent the District of Columbia and the five major U.

American Indians are U. Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a great deal of autonomy, but also like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, engage in their own foreign relations, or print and issue currency.

Citizenship is granted at birth in all states, the District of Columbia, and all major U. The United States has operated under a two-party system for most of its history.

Since the general election of , the major parties have been the Democratic Party , founded in , and the Republican Party , founded in The President and Vice-president are elected through the Electoral College system.

Within American political culture , the center-right Republican Party is considered " conservative " and the center-left Democratic Party is considered " liberal ".

The " red states " of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively conservative.

Republican Donald Trump , the winner of the presidential election , is serving as the 45th President of the United States. The Senate consists of 53 Republicans, and 45 Democrats with 2 Independents who caucus with the Democrats; the House consists of Democrats and Republicans.

The United States has an established structure of foreign relations. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D.

Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions. By contrast, private overseas giving by Americans is relatively generous.

The video game Scarface: The World Is Yours takes place in Miami. In addition to such annual festivals like Calle Ocho Festival and Carnaval Miami, Miami is home to many entertainment venues, theaters, museums, parks and performing arts centers.

Another very celebrated event is the Miami International Film Festival , taking place every year around the first week of March for a period of 10 days.

In which, independent International and American films are screened in the multiple theaters across the city. The city attracts a large number of musicians, singers, actors, dancers, and orchestral players.

Miami has numerous orchestras, symphonies and performing art conservatories. Miami is also a major fashion center, home to models and some of the top modeling agencies in the world.

The cuisine of Miami is a reflection of its diverse population, with a heavy influence especially from Caribbean cuisine and from Latin American cuisine.

By combining the two with American cuisine , it has spawned a unique South Florida style of cooking known as Floribbean cuisine. Floribbean cuisine is widely available throughout Miami and South Florida, and can be found in restaurant chains such as Pollo Tropical.

Located on the Atlantic Ocean, and with a long history as a seaport , Miami is also known for its seafood, with many seafood restaurants located along the Miami River , and in and around Biscayne Bay.

The Miami area has a unique dialect, commonly called the "Miami accent" which is widely spoken. The dialect developed among second- or third-generation Hispanics , including Cuban-Americans , whose first language was English though some non-Hispanic white , black , and other races who were born and raised in the Miami area tend to adopt it as well.

Unlike Virginia Piedmont , Coastal Southern American, and Northeast American dialects and Florida Cracker dialect, "Miami accent" is rhotic ; it also incorporates a rhythm and pronunciation heavily influenced by Spanish wherein rhythm is syllable-timed.

Miami Open , an annual tennis tournament, is held in Key Biscayne , an island town off the coast of Miami. The city is home to numerous greyhound racing tracks, marinas , jai alai venues, and golf courses.

Miami is also the home of many college sports teams. The following table shows the Miami area major professional teams and Division I teams with an average attendance of more than 10, The city has numerous marinas, rivers, bays, canals, and the Atlantic Ocean, which make boating, sailing, and fishing popular outdoor activities.

Biscayne Bay has numerous coral reefs that make snorkeling and scuba diving popular. There are over 80 parks and gardens in the city.

In its ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in the City of Miami was the 50th best park system among the most populous US cities, [] down slightly from 48th place in the ranking.

The government of the City of Miami proper uses the mayor-commissioner type of system. The city commission consists of five commissioners that are elected from single member districts.

The city commission constitutes the governing body with powers to pass ordinances, adopt regulations, and exercise all powers conferred upon the city in the city charter.

The mayor is elected at large and appoints a city manager. Miami has over , students enrolled in local colleges and universities, placing it seventh in the nation in per capita university enrollment.

Miami is also home to both for-profit and nonprofit organizations that offer a range of professional training and other, related educational programs.

As of September it has a student enrollment of , and over schools and centers. Miami is home to several well-known Roman Catholic, Jewish and non-denominational private schools.

Hugh Catholic School, St. Agatha Catholic School, St. Brendan High School , amongst numerous other Catholic elementary and high schools. Miami has one of the largest television markets in the nation and the second largest in the state of Florida.

El Nuevo Herald is the major and largest Spanish-language newspaper. The papers left their longtime home in downtown Miami in The newspapers are now headquartered at the former home of U.

Southern Command in Doral. Miami is the twelfth largest radio market [] and the seventeenth largest television market [] in the United States.

Television stations serving the Miami area include: According to the American Community Survey , The national average was 8.

The Miami grid is primarily numerical so that, for example, all street addresses north of Flagler Street and west of Miami Avenue have "NW" in their address.

Many roads, especially major ones, are also named e. Major roads in each direction are located at one mile intervals. One prominent exception is 42nd Avenue, LeJeune Road, located at the half-mile point instead.

Thus, major streets are at 8th St. Within the Grid, odd-numbered addresses are generally on the north or east side, and even-numbered addresses are on the south or west side.

This makes even unfamiliar addresses and distances easy — If one must travel from, say SW 8th St. Remarkably, even Miami natives are often unaware of this pattern.

One neighborhood, The Roads , is thusly named because its streets run off the Miami Grid at a degree angle, and therefore are all named roads.

Route 1 , U. Route 27 , U. Route 41 , and U. Some of the major Florida State Roads and their common names serving Miami are:.

Miami has six major causeways that span over Biscayne Bay connecting the western mainland, with the eastern barrier islands along the Atlantic Ocean.

In , Miami was identified as having the rudest drivers in the United States, the second year in a row to have been cited, in a poll commissioned by automobile club AutoVantage.

The average single trip distance with public transit is 7. A free, elevated people mover , Metromover , operates 21 stations on three different lines in greater Downtown Miami, with a station at roughly every two blocks of Downtown and Brickell.

Several expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County. Completion of the Miami Intermodal Center is expected to be completed by winter , and will serve over , commuters and travelers in the Miami area.

Two new light rail systems, Baylink and the Miami Streetcar, have been proposed and are currently in the planning stage. The station was expected to be completed by , [] but experienced several delays and was later expected to be completed in late , [] again pushed back to early One of the busiest international airports in the world, Miami International Airport caters to over 35 million passengers a year.

The airport is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines. Kennedy International Airport , and is the seventh-largest such gateway in the world.

Alternatively, nearby Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport also serves commercial traffic in the Miami area.

In recent years the city government, under Mayor Manny Diaz , has taken an ambitious stance in support of bicycling in Miami for both recreation and commuting.

Every month, the city hosts "Bike Miami", where major streets in Downtown and Brickell are closed to automobiles, but left open for pedestrians and bicyclists.

The event began in November , and has doubled in popularity from 1, participants to about 3, in the October Bike Miami.

This is the longest-running such event in the US. In October , the city also approved an extensive year plan for bike routes and paths around the city.

The city has begun construction of bike routes as of late , and ordinances requiring bike parking in all future construction in the city became mandatory as of October In , Miami was ranked as the 44th-most bike-friendly city in the US according to Bicycling Magazine.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city in Florida. For other uses, see Miami disambiguation. City in Florida, United States.

Metropolitan City in Florida, United States. From top, left to right: Miami city limits in and around Miami-Dade County and Florida. History of Miami and Timeline of Miami.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

List of tallest buildings in Miami. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

July Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of companies based in Miami. Government of the City of Miami. List of mayors of Miami.

Miami-Dade County Public Schools. List of newspapers in Florida , List of radio stations in Florida , and List of television stations in Florida.

Transportation in South Florida. List of sister cities in Florida. For more information, see ThreadEx. United States Census Bureau.

Retrieved July 7, Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved October 21, Archived from the original on October 28, Archived from the original on June 29, Retrieved August 10, Archived from the original on March 9, Retrieved April 20, April 1, to July 1, ".

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Retrieved February 19, Retrieved March 30, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Snow falls in Florida ". It was the farthest south that snow has been reported in the United States since the record books were started in the 19th century.

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Flaggen der Staaten von: Wappen der Staaten von: Allerdings wurde das Siegel der USA , d. Jahrhundert ebenso relevant wie im Das wohl auffälligste Muster enthielt der Entwurf der 38 Star Flag von , bei dem ein zentraler Stern für Colorado von zwei Ringen aus Sternen umgeben war. Siegel des US Marine Corps. Confederate States of America ; Abkürzung:

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Snow falls in Florida ". It was the farthest south that snow has been reported in the United States since the record books were started in the 19th century.

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The World is Yours". Archived from the original on May 11, Institute of Contemporary Art Miami. Archived from the original on July 20, Retrieved September 1, Archived from the original on December 3, Archived from the original on August 20, Retrieved June 27, The Trust for Public Land.

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Archived from the original on June 2, Retrieved August 8, The capital is Washington, D. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid- Pacific Ocean.

Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12, years ago. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution , which began in , and the subsequent Declaration of Independence in The war ended in with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power.

The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories , [22] displacing Native American tribes , and gradually admitting new states until it spanned the continent by During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.

The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower , the first country to develop nuclear weapons , the only country to use them in warfare , and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.

It is a federal republic and a representative democracy , "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law ".

The United States ranks among the highest nations in several measures of socioeconomic performance, including human development , per capita GDP , and productivity per person.

Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort.

The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms are the "U. Colloquial names are the "U. The phrase "United States" was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.

The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom "these United States". The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit.

A citizen of the United States is an " American ". In English, the word " American " rarely refers to topics or subjects not directly connected with the United States.

It has been generally accepted that the first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 12, years ago however, increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival.

It is likely these represent the first of three major waves of migrations into North America. Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies.

In the southern Great Lakes region, the Iroquois Confederacy Haudenosaunee was established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries.

The date of the first settlements of the Hawaiian Islands is a topic of continuing debate. While estimating the original native population of North America at the time of European contact is difficult, an attempt was made in the early part of the twentieth century by James Mooney using historic records to estimate the indigenous population north of Mexico in Ubelaker of the Smithsonian Institution has updated these figures.

Dobyns believed that the populations were much higher, suggestion 1,, along the shores of the gulf of Mexico, 2,, people living between Florida and Massachusetts , 5,, in the Mississippi Valley and tributaries and , people in the Florida peninsula.

The first interaction between Europeans and Native Americans was made by the Norsemen. A number of surviving Norse sagas provide information regarding The Maritimes and its indigenous people.

The Norse attempted to settle in North America about years before Columbus. In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans.

Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other.

Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.

With the advancement of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.

The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom.

Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements.

Cash crops included tobacco, rice, and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups.

As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed further west. A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was begun.

With the British colonization of Georgia in , the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were established.

Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed. Excluding the Native Americans , who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.

Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California.

During his third and final voyage , Captain James Cook became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii.

After having arrived in the Hawaiian islands in , Captain Cook sailed north and then northeast to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California.

Cook would be killed days later. The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power.

Americans had developed an ideology of " republicanism " asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures.

They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.

The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, which recognized, in a long preamble, that all men are created equal and endowed by their Creator with unalienable rights and that those rights were not being protected by Great Britain, and declared, in the words of the resolution, that the thirteen United Colonies formed an independent nation and had no further allegiance to the British crown.

The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day. Britain recognized the independence of the United States following its defeat at Yorktown in Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of in writing the United States Constitution , ratified in state conventions in The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in George Washington , who had led the revolutionary army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution.

The Bill of Rights , forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in , after , cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South , and along with it, the slave population.

In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism ; [] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.

From to , Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from to The Trail of Tears in the s exemplified the Indian removal policy that resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations.

The California Gold Rush of —49 spurred western migration and the creation of additional western states.

Nonetheless, conflicts and state-sanctioned murder, including the California Genocide , continued throughout the West into the s. Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.

But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery.

With the election of Abraham Lincoln , the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party , conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America the "South" , while the federal government the " Union " maintained that secession was illegal.

The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately , soldiers as well as many civilians.

Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April , each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment , which prohibited slavery.

Three amendments were added to the U. Constitution in the years after the war: The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power [] aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves.

Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans.

They persisted until the Compromise of when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of Southern white Democrats, calling themselves " Redeemers ", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction.

From to , so-called Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region. Blacks faced racial segregation , especially in the South.

The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life. This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets.

Virgin Islands from Denmark in Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists.

Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt , John D. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. Morgan playing a notable role.

Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting.

Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I , in , until when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I , helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers.

However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.

After his election as president in , Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal , which included the establishment of the Social Security system.

As an Allied victory was won in Europe , a international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter , which became active after the war.

After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union jockeyed for power during what became known as the Cold War , driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism [] and, according to the school of geopolitics , a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps.

They dominated the military affairs of Europe , with the U. The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments.

At home, the U. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of , sought to end racial discrimination.

The launch of a " War on Poverty " expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid , two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.

The s and early s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in , President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms.

The concept of Pax Americana , which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.

Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield , a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm , in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.

Due to the dot-com boom , stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan , and reduced social welfare spending , the s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.

The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements [] and a relative decline in unemployment.

The law caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, with 24 million covered during , [] but remains controversial due to its impact on healthcare costs, insurance premiums, and economic performance.

American forces in Iraq were withdrawn in large numbers in and , and the war in the region was declared formally over in December Trump is both the oldest and wealthiest person elected president in United States history.

Alaska , separated from the contiguous United States by Canada, is the largest state at , square miles 1,, The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted, and how the total size of the United States is measured.

The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont.

The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast. The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types.

To the east of the th meridian , the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate.

The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California , and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska.

Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical , as are the populated territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.

There are 59 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas. Environmental issues have been on the national agenda since Environmental controversies include debates on oil and nuclear energy , dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation , [] [] and international responses to global warming.

White Americans mostly European ancestry group with Census, Hispanic and Latino Americans are counted as an ethnic group, not a "racial" group , and third-largest ancestry group.

The population growth of Hispanic and Latino Americans the terms are officially interchangeable is a major demographic trend.

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